Arab loan English words listed by W. Montgomery Watt

arab words

“The main objective of the composition of the list to show our debt, European people, to Islam during the Medieval Age… This list not include all of the Arab loan English words at all.” — W. Montgomerry Watt

Note: In bracket it its Indonesian translation.

W. Montgomery Watt

ABYSSINIA — Ar. habashi (Habashah)

ADMIRAL — Ar. amir. al-rahl (pimpinan kafilah), atau amir al-bahr (komandan angkatan laut).

ADOBE — Ar. al-tub (brick)

ALBATROSS — Port. alcadroz — Ar. al-qadus (kendi, burung bentukan).

ALCAIDE, ALCALDE — Ar. al-qa’id

ALCANNA (tanaman yang menghasilkan bahan celup) — Ar. al-hinna

ALCHEMY — Ar. al-kimiya’ – bahasa Mesir, kemi

ALCOHOL — Ar. al-kuhl, al-kahul (bubuk)

ALCOVE — Sp. alcoba – Ar. al-qubba (kubah)

ALEMBIC — Ar. al-anbiq — Yun. ambix

ALEPPIN (materi) — Aleppo — Ar. halab

ALFA, HALFA (rumput) — Ar. halfa

ALFALFA — Ar. al-fasfasa

ALGEBRA — Ar. al-jabr (aljabar)

ALGORITHM — Ar. al-Khawarizmi (nama orang, penulis kitab Aljabar)

ALKALI — Ar. al-qali (garam abu; kalium karbonat)

ALKANET (tanaman penghasil bahan celup) — Ar. al-hinna’ (pacar)

ALMAGEST — Ar. al-majisti — Yun.

ALMANACH — Ar. al-munakh (cerita, dan lainnya)

ALPACA — Ar. al-, Sp. paco

AMALGAM — Ar. al-malgham — Yun. malagma

AMBER — Ar. ‘anbar

AMICE — Sp. almucio — Ar. al-mustaq — Pers.

ALMULET — (?) Ar. al-hama’il (yang dibawa)

ANILIN — Ar. al-nila (nila) — Sank. nilas

ANTIMONY — Ar. itsmid — Coptic stim

APRICOT — Sp. albaricoque — Ar. — Lat. praecox

ARAB (kuda), ARABESQUE — Ar. ‘arab (Arab)

ARRACK — Ar. ‘araq (secara harfiah: manis)

ARSENAL — Ar. dar al-sina’a

ANTICHOKE — Sp. alcarchofo — Ar. al-kharshuf

ASSASIN — Ar. hashishiyyln, hashshashin (penjual atau pemakai hashish)

ATLAS (pakaian) — Ar. atlas (lembut)

AUBERGINE — Sp. alberengena — Ar. al-badinjan —Pers.

AVERAGE — Sp. averia — Ar. ‘awwar (kalah)

AZIMUTH — Ar. al-sumut (jalan, arah)

AZOTH (air raksa) — Ar. al-dzawuq

AZURE — Ar. lazwardi— Pers.; atau Ar. azraq (biru)

BABOON — Ar. maymun (lutung; kera)

BALCONY — Pers. balakhana (tempat atas) — Ar. bala

BALDACHINO — It. baldacco — Ar. Baghdad

BANANA — Ar. banana (jari)

BARBERRY — Ar. barbaris

BARBICAN — Sp. barbacana — Pers. balakhana — Ar. bala

BARQUE — Port. barroca — Ar. burqa (pasir yang tak rata, d11.)

BARQUE, BARQUENTINE, BRIGANTINE — Sp. barca — Ar. barsha, (barija) — bahasa Mesir, va-ra (kapal matahari)

BEDOUIN — Ar. badawiyyin

BENZINE, dsb. — Ar. luban jawi (bahan bakar di Jawa)

BERBERINE — Ar. barbaris

BERGAMOT — Ar. — Turk. begarmudy (mutiara raja)

BEZOAR — Sp. bezoar — Ar. —Pers. padzahr

BISMUTH — Sp. bismuto — (?) Ar. itsmid (logam putih)

BLOUSE — Lat. Pelusia — Ar. balusi — bahasa Mesir, Palusium

BOMBASINE — Lat. bombacium — Ar. — Pers. panba (kapas) (Turk. pembe)

BORAX — Port. borax — Ar. buraq — Pers. burah

BORAGE — Per. bourrache — Ar. abu-raj (biang keringat)

BUCKRAM, BARCHANT — Ar. barrakan (barang berat)

CABAS (tas kerja) — Ar. qafash

CABAYA — Ar. qaba’ — Pers.

CABLE — Ar. habl (tali)

CADI, CAUZEE — Ar. qadli (hakim)

CALIBRE — Ar. qalib (model)

CALIPH — Sp. califa — Ar. khalifa

CAMEL — Lat. camelus — Ar. jamal (unta)

CAMELIA — Germ. (Josef) Kammel — Ar. jamal

CAMELOT — (materi) — Ar. jamal

CAMPHOR — Ar. kafur — Sank. karpura

CANDY ;— Ar. qand, qandi (juis gula tebu yang diperas)

CAPER — Sp. alcaparra — Ar. kabbar — Yun. kapparis

CARAFE — Sp. garrafa — Ar. gharrafa

CARAT — Port. quirate — Lat. carratus — Ar. qirat

CARAWAY — Ar. karawiyya (atau karawiya’)

CARMINE — Lat. carmesinus — Ar. qirmazi, qirmiz — Sansk. krimija (ulat)

CAROB — Ar. kharruba — ? Asshrian

CHECK — Ar. Pers. shah (raja) (digunakan sebagai nama permainan)

CHECKMATE — Ar. shah mat (raja meninggal)

CHEMISTRY — (as “alchemy”)

CHEQUE — Ar. sakk (perbuatan, kesepakatan tertulis) atau sebagai “chek”

CHESS — Pers. shah

CHIFFON — Per. kuno chiffe — Ar. shiff (pakaian yang bagus).

CID — Ar. sayyid

CINNABAR — Lat. cinnabaris — Ar. zinjafr — Pers.

CIVET (CAT), ZIBET — Ar. zabad

COFFEE — Ar. qahwa

COFFLE (kereta budak-budak) — Ar. qafila

COTTON — Ar. qutun

COFFER — Tua Per. — Ar. quffa — Yun. kophinos

COLCOTHAR — Ar. qulqutar — Yun. khalkanthe

CRAMOISY — Ar. qirmazi — qirmiz

CRIMSON (lihat “carmine”)

CUBEB — Ar. kabab

CUMIN — Yun. kuminos, asalnya sama dengan Ar. kammun —? Asshrian

CUPOLA — Ar. qubba (kubah)

CYPHER — Ar. sifr (nol; kosong)

DAM, DAMBROD (juru gambar, papan gambar) — Sp. ajedrez de la dama, ajedrez atama — Ar. al-shitranj al-tam (catur yang lengkap)

DAMAN (tukang pikul batu) — Ar. daman

DAMASCENE, DAMASK — L. damascenus — Ar. Dimishk

DAMSON — i.e. damascene plum

DATE — Lat. dactylus — Sp. datil — Ar. daqal (inferior date)

DEMI-JOHN — Ital. damigiana — Ar. damajan — Pers.

DHOW — Ar. dawa

DIVAN — Ar. diwan — Pers.

DRAGOMAN — Ar. tarjuman (penterjemah)

DRUG — Ar. durawa (?)

DRUSE — Ar. Duruz

DURRA — Ar. durra

ELEMI — Sp. elemi —Ar. (al-lami)

ELIXIR — Ar. al-iksir — (?) Yun. xeron

FAKIR – Ar. faqir

FANFARE – Ar. farfara (?) (bandingkan dengan Per. fanfaron)

FATAMORGANA – It. – Ar. marjan (batu karang)

FELUCCA – Port. falua Sp. haloque – Ar. harraqa; atau Ar. falaka (berputar), fulk, fuluka

FELLAH, FELLAHEEN – Ar. fallahin

FONDACO (hotel) – It. – Ar. funduq – Yun. pandocheion

FRET (of guitar) – Ar. farida, fard

FRIEZE – Frisco – Ar. ifriz – (?) Yun. Phrygios

GABELLE – Lat. caballa (pajak) – Ar. qabala

GALA – It. – Ar. khil’a (jubah kehormatan)

GALINGALE – Lat. galanga – Ar. khalanjan

GALLANT – Sp. galante (berpakaian yang bagus) – Ar. khil’a

GAMASH (pembalut kaki) – (?) Sp. guadamaci – Ar. ghadamasi (salah satu bentuk kulit)

GAZE, GAUZE -Sp. gasa – Ar. qazz (sutera) – Pers. (mungkin bukan dari Gaza)

GAZELLE – Ar. ghazal

GAZETTE – It. gazzetta (uang logam) – Lat. gaza – Ar. kanz – Pers. ganj (harta benda)

GHAZAL (puisi) – Ar. ghazal

GIAOUR, GUEBRE – Turk. – Pers. gar – (?) Ar. kafir (orang yang tak percaya), atau jawara (orang yang menyimpang)

GILRALTAR – Ar. jabal Tariq (gunung Tariq).

GINGER – Lat. gingiber, zingiber Ar. zanjabil – Sank.

GIRAFFE – Ar. zurafa

GUITAR (Cither, Citole, Gittern, Zither) – Sp. guitarra – Ar. Qitar – Yun. kithara

GYPSUM – Ar. jibs – Yun. gypsos

HAKEEM, HAKIM – Ar. hakim (doctor), hakim (gubernur)

HASHISH – Ar. hashish

HALICHORE, HALALCOR – Pers. – Ar.

HAZARD – Sp. azar – (?) Ar. al-zahr (akar)

HENNA – Ar. hinna’

HOOKA – Ar. huqqa (pipa air)

HOWDAH – Ar. hawdaj

IRADE (dekrit Sultan) – Turk. – Ar. irada (keinginan)

JAR – Ar. jarra

JASMINE – Ar. yasmin – Pers.

JERBOA – Ar. yarbu’

JUMP, JUPE (jaket, korset) – Ar. jubba

JUMPER – Ar. jubba (mungkin)

JULEP (minum) – Ar. julab – Pers. gul-ab

KALIUM (potassium) – Ar. qali

KAVASS, KAWASS (pembantu bersenjata, kurir) – Ar. qawwas

KERMES (insect giving dye) – Ar. qirmiz; bandingkan dengan Carmine

KISMET – Turk. – Ar. qisma (t)

KOHL (celak mata) – Ar. kuhl

LAC, LACQUER, crimson Lake – ? Ar. – Pers. lak atau Turk. laqa Sansk.

LADANUM, (?LAUDANUM) – Lat. – Ar. ladan

LANDAU – Ar. al-andal – Sansk.

LAPIS-LAZULI – Lat. lazulum – Ar. lazwardi – Pers.

LILAC – Ar. – Pers. lilak

LEMON – Ar. limun – Pers.

LOOFAH – Ar. lufa (1887)

LUTE – Ar. al-‘ud

MAGAZINE – Ar. makhazin (jamak dari makhzan)

MAMELUKE – Ar. mamluk (budak)

MANCUS (mata uang) – Ar. manqush

MARABOU (burung bangau) – Ar. murabit

MARABOUT (orang suci) – Ar. murabit, marbut

MARCASITE – Ar. marqashita – Aramaic

MAROQUIN (dibuat dari kulit Maroko): lihat Morocco

MARZIPAN, Marchpane – Ar. mawthaban (raja yang mapan) – Pers. marzuban

MASK, MASQUE, MASQUERADE – Sp. mascara – Ar. maskhara

MAT, MATT – Ar. mat (meninggal)

MATACHIN (penari-pedang dalam pakaian fantasi) – (?) Ar. mutawailihin (memakai kedok)

MATE (dalam dada) – Ar. mat (meninggal)

MATTRESS – It., Sp. – Ar. matrah (tempat di mana sesuatu dibuang)

MINARET – Ar. manara, minara

MOCHA – Ar. Mukha (kota)

MOHAIR – Ar. mukhayyar (pilihan)

MOIRE (pabrik) — Ar. mukhayyar

MONSOON — Port. moncao() — Ar. mawsim (musim)

MOROCCO — Ar. Marakush (kota)

MOSQUE — Per. Kuno mosquette — Sp. mezqueta — Ar. masjid

MULATTO — (?)•Ar. muwallad

MUMMY — Ar. mumiya — Pers. mum (lilin)

MUSCAT, MUSCADINE, MUSCATEL — Provençal, muscat (ks. Of musc) — Ar. musk, atau Masqat

MUSK — Per. musc — Ar. musk — Pers. mushk

MUSKET — Ar. mustaq

MUSLIN — Ar. Mosul, Mawsil (kota)

MYRRH — Ar. Murr, murra

NABOB — Ar. nuwwab, pl. dari naib (wakil)

NACRE (induk mutiara) — Per. kuno nacaire — Ar. naqqara

NADIR — Sp. nadir — Ar. nazir (bertentangan, sc. dari puncak)

NAKER (kettledrum) — Ar. naqqara — Pers. ?

NATRON — Ar. natrun — Yun. — Ibrani nether

NITRE — Ar. natran, nitrun — Yun. nitron — Ibrani

NORIA — (roda air) — Sp. — Ar. na’ura

OGIVE — Lat. augivus, bandingkan It. auge — Ar. ‘awj

ORANGE — Ar. naranj — Pers. narang

OTTOMAN — Turk. — Ar. Uthman

PERCIVAL (nama) — Ar. faris al-fal (pembawa keberuntungan)

POPINJAY — Per. kuno papagai — Ar. babbagha (?)

RACE — Sp. raza — Ar. ra’s (ketua)

RACKET — Per. raquette — Ar. raha (telapak tangan)

RAZZIA — Ar. (dialek) ghaziyya, ghaziya

REALGAR (arsenik merah) — Ar. rahj al-ghar (puing reruntuhan)

REAM — Per. kuno rayme — Ar. rizma

REBEC — It. ribeba, ribeca Ar. rabab

RICE — Sp. Per. kuno ris, — Ar. ruzz, aruzz

RISK — Sp. arrisco, risco — Ar. rizq (rizki)

ROB (buah jeruk dengan madu) Ar. rubb

ROC (burung) — Ar. rukh — ? Malayu

ROCKET — Ar. raha (telapak tangan) (seperti “raket”)

ROOK (dada) — Ar. rukh

SACCHARIN — Lat. saccharum — Ar. Sukkar

SACRE, SAKER (semacam burung elang) — Ar. saqr

SAFARI — Swahili — Ar. safara (bepergian)

SAFFRON — Per. Safran — Ar. za’faran —?

SALEP, SALOP — (anggrek) — Ar. tsa’lab (srigala, testicle of)

SAMBOOK — Ar. sanbuq

SANDALWOOD — Ar. sandal — Sansk.

SAPPHIRE — Ar. safir — Sansk.

SARACEN — Lat. — Ar. sharqi (timur)

SATIN — It. setino — Ar. zaytuni (sifat dari minuman Cina)

SENNA — Ar. sans

SEPOY — Turk. sipilki — Ar. — Pers. sipah (tentara)

SHELLAC bentuk dari “lac” (q.v.)

SHERBET — Turk. sherbet — Ar. sharba (t) (minum)

SHRUB (minuman) — Ar. shurb (minuman)

S(H)UMACH (tanaman) — Ar. summaq

SIROCCO — It. scirocco — Ar. sharq (timur)

SOFA — Per. — Ar. suffa

SORBET — Turk. shorbet — Ar. sharba(t)

SPAHI — Turk. sipale — Ar. — Pers.

SPINACH — Per. Kuno espinage — Ar. isbanakh — Pers. aspanakh

SUGAR — Per. — Ar. sukkar — Sansk. sharkara

SULTAN — Ar. sultan (kekuasaan)

SULTANA — Ar. (istri sultan)

SYRUP — Per. Kuno sirop — Ar. sharab, shurb (minuman)

TABBY (pakaian) — Ar. ‘Attabiyya (bagian dari Baghdad)

TABOR, TABORIN, TABRET (drum) — Ar.? thabl — Pers. taburak

TALC — Ar. talq —? Pers.

TALISMAN — Ar. tilasm — Yun. telesma

TAMARIND — Ar. tamr hindi (penanggalan India)

TAMARISK — Lat. tamariscus — Ar. tamr

TAMBOUR (drum), Tambourine — Ar. — Pers. tabartik

TARE — Ar. tarha (bungkusan yang dibuang)

TARIFF — It. tariffa — Ar. ta’rif (pemberitahuan)

TAROT (kartu) — It. tarocco — ? Ar.

TARRAGON — Lat. tarchon — Ar. tarkan — Pers.

TASS, TASSIE — Per. tasse — Ar. tass, tassa — Pers. tasht (selat)

TEAK — Port. teca — Ar. saj dan Tamil tekku — Sank. saka

TOQUE — Ital. tocca Ar. taqiya (under-cap)

TROUBADOR — ? Ar. tarrab (penyanyi); taraba (menyanyi)

TURBITH, TURPETH – AR. Turbadh

TUTTY – Ar. tutiya’ (timah oksid)

VIZIR – Ar. wazir

WAD – Per. ouate – Ar. batin

ZEBOARY – Ar. zidwar

ZENITH – Per. kuno cenit – Ar. samt (al-ra’s; pemimpin)

ZERO – It. zero, zefro – Ar. sifr. (nol)

ZIRCON – Ar. azraq (biru)

ZOUAVE – zawawa (nama suku)

Source: W. Montgomery Watt, Islam dan Peradaban Dunia: Pengaruh Islam Atas Eropa Abad Pertengahan, Indonesian translation from: The Influence of Islam on Medieval Europe,1972. Jakarta: Gramedia, 1995. Penerjemah: Hendro Prasetyo. Pengantar: Dr. Nurcholish Madjid. Apendix, pp 125-134. See also: http://blogs.transparent.com/arabic/top-50-english-words-of-arabic-origin/ & http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_English_words_of_Arabic_origin

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