Keruntuhan Empayar Brunei KM 19: Satu Kajian dari Sudut Ekonomi (The Fall of Brunei Empire in 19th Century: A Study from Economic Aspect). Author: Awang Haji Abdul Karim bin Haji Abdul Rahman. Publisher: Brunei History Centre, 2008.Pages: xviii+198
The book discusses the fall of Brunei Empire from historic and economic aspects. It’s consisted of five chapters which is commenced from the rise of Brunei as a political power in Borneo and the establishment of Brunei as an Empire that controlled all of the shores of Borneo island to the southern Philippines and its economy and commerce as well. Furthermore, Brunei faced challenges over its commerce and empire and the fall of Brunei Empire till it became a British protectorate in the early 20th century.
The author started his study with the principles of the creation of Brunei Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries based on the control of menpower which were consisted of Borneo’s Malay and Dayak people. The expansion of Brunei Empire was in line with the development of Brunei foreign trade , especially to fulfill the requests of Chinese and European merchants over the forest products.
The study also found that that the fall of Brunei Empire in the middle of 19th century was caused by two things, namely Brooke’s colonialisation and British North Borneo Company (SIBU) over Brunei areas and the stance of Sultan and his families over their feudal territories which causing many problems of administration.
The basis of colonialisation which was stirred by the two British powers had given more contribution for the falling of Brunei Empire which had beeing upheaval before their arrival in Borneo.
The massive territorial expansion of Brooke and SIBU threatened the safety of the Brunei Sultanate, specifically if Brooke’s dream to include Brunei territory, including Brunei River, to Sarawak area be realised.
However, the existence of Brunei was successfully saved when Brunei signed the 1995/1906 Additional Treaty with British and henceforth became a British protectorate in 1906. — Darul Aqsha