Royal revolution as Indonesian sultan taps female heir

yk sultan
Olivia Rondonuwu

COURIERS in elaborate outfits danced to the gentle tinkling of Javanese music as the Sultan of Yogyakarta looked on, a scene that has played out in much the same way for centuries in the tiny Indonesian kingdom.

But the recent ceremony to mark the 70th birthday of Hamengku Buwono X, Indonesia’s last sultan with real political power, had one key difference from previous celebrations — many of his relatives refused to attend.

A bitter feud has erupted at the heart of the kingdom on Java island, after the Muslim ruler signalled he wants his eldest daughter to become the sultanate’s first female monarch after he leaves the throne.

Indonesia is home to numerous small kingdoms. But while other provinces now elect political rulers and their sultans are largely ceremonial figures, Yogyakarta’s sultan serves as both royal leader and governor of the city and its surrounding areas.

Jakarta allowed the Yogyakarta royal family to keep power as the central government was grateful for the sultanate’s support for independence in 1945 after a long period of Dutch colonial rule.

The sultan still maintains many of the trappings of Javanese royal rule in the kingdom, which has a history stretching back to the 16th century.

His main residence is a traditional Javanese palace complex, known as a Kraton, and important events are celebrated with much pomp and circumstance.

But the sultan’s push to make the eldest of his five daughters — he has no sons — the first female monarch of Yogyakarta has transformed him into an unlikely champion for gender equality, and threatens to overturn hundreds of years of tradition in the Muslim, conservative sultanate.

It has sparked a furious row with his family, who say he is breaking rules laid down to govern the sultanate, amid speculation that his brothers were jockeying to fill his position.

“A female sultan is an impossibility,” the sultan’s cousin, Kanjeng Raden Tumenggung Jatiningrat, told AFP.

“One symbol in this palace is a rooster — so if we have a queen should we change it to a hen?”

The rooster is a symbol of bravery.

He added that a female ruler could not oversee rituals in the mosque or other ceremonies that have traditionally been led by men.

Hamengku Buwono, who has been on the throne 27 years, last year set in motion the process for his daughter to become monarch by giving her the title “Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Mangkubumi.”

While he has not confirmed publicly that she is the crown princess, in Javanese culture — where much is conveyed through symbolism rather than anything said out loud — the signs are clear.

The title Mangkubumi, which translates from Indonesian as “the one who holds the Earth”, was the same one given to the sultan when he was made crown prince several decades ago.

She was also entrusted with the task of “attempting to bring safety, happiness and prosperity to the world”, another indication she would succeed her father.

And the sultan made small changes to his own lengthy royal title — removing a word normally only used by men and tweaking another — to make it gender-neutral, opening the door for a woman to take over.

The sultan has defended the move, saying there is nothing stopping him from making changes in his kingdom and he has to adapt as Indonesia modernises.

“The Yogyakarta palace doesn’t have a hereditary tradition that can’t be changed, and all ruling sultans can introduce changes,” he told local media.

Still, many disagree with him, from his relatives to local Muslim groups.

“The king should maintain the tradition as it was originally, because this is an Islamic kingdom,” said Abdurrahman, from local hardline group Islamic Jihad Front, who like many Indonesians goes by one name.

But it is not the first time there has been a female monarch in diverse Indonesia – nowadays Muslim-majority, but which has had Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms over the centuries and is home to about 300 different ethnic groups.

Queens at times ruled over the ancient Majapahit empire, which covered large parts of what is now Indonesia from the late 13th to the early 16th centuries, as they did in Aceh, on western Sumatra island, when it was an independent sultanate.

And the sultan’s approximately four million subjects in Yogyakarta and the surrounding area, who view him as a demi-God, have had only a muted a reaction, with most preferring to keep out of royal affairs.

Nevertheless the row looks unlikely to be resolved any time soon, and it cast a long shadow over the recent celebration, which marked the anniversary of the sultan’s coronation as well as his birthday.

The solemn melodies from the “gamelans” — a traditional Indonesian instrumental ensemble, made up of bronze percussion instruments — were a million miles from the seething tensions swirling around the royal succession.

“About 90 per cent of the family don’t respect him anymore,” raged Gusti Bendoro Pangeran Haryo Prabukusumo, a step-brother of the ruler who snubbed the event.

Wed, 29 June 2016



Muslim women forbidden to buy sperm



BANK of sperm, named Cryos, began to export sperms to about 80 countries for sale. The sperms were put into small bottles and were mostly bought by women who are still single.

Chairman of Youth Muhammadiyah, Dahnil Anzar Simanjuntak, said the phenomenon of companies that sell sperms to be purchased by singlewomen, was a contemporary phenomenon in Western society.

Dahnil Anzar Simanjuntak

Dahnil Anzar Simanjuntak

“The West has not made family as a sacred thing to build civilization,” he said, Thursday (29/10).

Unlike the East community, he added, especially Muslims, family is placed in a sacred position. A family is formed not only in order to obtain offspring but to begin civilization.

“Hence, the practice of selling sperm is certainly forbidden. Muslim women are also forbidden to buy the sperm to have a child,” Dahnil explained.

According to him, it was totally forbidden in Islam and also contrary to the culture of Indonesia.


Friday, 30 October 2015


Muslim women urged to revive role in science, tech

EDU_MuslimSally Piri

A VISITING professor from England yesterday underscored the need to understand the original role and position of women in early Muslim civilisation as they had made great contributions in building the society, including in science, medicine and management.

According to Emeritus Professor Salim Al-Hassani at the University of Manchester, the women in early Muslim civilisation were better off and had more dynamic roles in the religion and in building of the society.

“So, for women (today) to pursue science, it is naturally in the tradition because it was done before. For women to become doctors, nurses, astronomers, mathematicians, they did it before. It is all done before,” said Professor Salim, who is also president of the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation in the United Kingdom.

During his lecture at Dewan Jubilee of Universiti Sultan Shariff Ali (UNISSA), Professor Salim talked about the involvement and role of Muslim women in the development and progress of science and technology, during which he gave examples of prominent women in Muslim heritage who played major roles in the field of science and medicine such as Zubayda bin Abu Ja’far al-mansur.

Emeritus Professor Salim, University of Manchester President of Foundation for Science and Technology and Civilisation (UK), delivering his lecture.  Photo: BT/Ridhwan Kamarulzaman

Emeritus Professor Salim, University of Manchester President of Foundation for Science and Technology and Civilisation (UK), delivering his lecture. Photo: BT/Ridhwan Kamarulzaman

“What we should do is to encourage women to revive their tradition, not necessarily identical, but to derive lessons from the past to build a better future,” he said.

He said that young people should be inspired by scientists from the western world but also need to recognise great Muslim scientists as well as Chinese and Indian scientists. This will create respect and harmony between nations and cultures.

“This will inspire young people to seek for science, technology, and discovery then become curious about the universe and they become useful to the society,” he added.

The talk titled “Involvement of Muslim Women in Science” was organised by the Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports.

Present as the guest of honour was Deputy Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports Datin Paduka Hjh Adina Othman.

On the sidelines of the event, Datin Paduka Hjh Adina said women in Brunei are treated equally as they have been participating in various fields including in science and technology.

She called on the women and youth in Brunei to learn as much as they can, be inspired and make use of all the facilities provided.

“It is up to us to grab those opportunities, advance ourselves and study hard, and contribute to the nation.”

The Brunei Times
Friday, November 7, 2014



Aussie Muslims: ‘Muslim women’s roles in Indonesia are progressive’

Yeyen Rostiyani

REPUBLIKA.CO.ID – Three Australian Muslims discussed Muslims life in Indonesia as well as in their country during their visit to Republika on Monday, May, 12, 2014. Among others, they learned that women’s roles in Indonesia were progressive.

“I see women’s roles here are progressive and other countries should follow Indonesia,” Kashif Bouns said, cited an example as more women worked as journalists in Indonesia. “Since i come to Jakarta, I also learned about the size of the city, and people’s politeness as well their hospitality.”

Three Australian Muslims Mohamed Dukuly (left), Kashif Bouns (center) and Laila Ibrahim, visit 'Republika' on Monday, May 12, 2014.

Three Australian Muslims Mohamed Dukuly (left), Kashif Bouns (center) and Laila Ibrahim, visit ‘Republika’ on Monday, May 12, 2014.

The football player visited with two other colleagues, Laila Ibrahim and Mohamed Dukuly, who also shared their experience during their 15 day visit to Indonesia as well as their challenges at home.

“In Australia, we always in rush, when we get home from office, during work, and so on, but here, i learn about easy going attitude,” Ibrahim said. While Dukuly noted the sense of self and courage of Indonesian people to fight for their life.

“Back home, our biggest challenge is diversity, as we came from different background of ethnicities like Arab, Pakistani, or Malaysian,” Dukuly said. “Now we have to make sure that they have access to education, media, and others.”

“But i believe that every challenge opens opportunity. Muslims are among the growing number groups in Australia and we have to make sure that they can access to school, media, and others,” Bouns explained.

While Ibrahim said that people used to complain about Muslim’s challenges in Australia. “In fact, it’s not that bad. We are very lucky,” she added. “In Melbourne and Sydney, it’s easy to build mosque.”

Yet, she admitted that media was still new business among Muslim youths in her country.

“Journalism in Sydney and Australia in general is still new thing. But ghere more and more media including printed newspaper and radios are dedicated for Muslims,” the female footballer explained.


Mon, 12 May 2014

The return of the Indonesian female migrant workers: Wasted talent


Returned migrant workers have much to offer, but have trouble achieving recognition for the skills they’ve developed abroad

Ellen Prusinski

In 2006, Dewi decided to follow in the steps of her older sister, who had spent two years working in Taiwan. After registering with a migrant worker recruitment agency in Semarang, Dewi waited on the agency grounds for nearly three months before she was matched with an employer in Taipei. In the meantime, she followed a highly regimented training schedule. Every morning and evening, Dewi studied Mandarin with one hundred of her classmates. In the afternoon, she practised cooking and cleaning tasks because the agency told her she would be working as a housekeeper in Taiwan.

When she arrived in Taiwan, Dewi found that she was not to be a housekeeper, or even a run-of-the-mill nanny. Instead, she was assigned to care for Ming, a young boy with significant developmental disabilities. Unable to hear, speak, or walk, Ming’s skin was ghostly pale from years spent isolated indoors. At first, Dewi was overwhelmed both by Ming’s need for round-the-clock care and by her own lack of knowledge about how to help him. The small amount of Mandarin she had learned at the recruitment agency had very little in common with the language she heard around her in Taiwan. Ming’s parents did not allow her any days off and the only break Dewi got was when she accompanied Ming to his special needs school. She had not yet finished paying off the recruitment agency fees, though, and she knew she had to stay until she at least broke even.

The longer Dewi stayed, the more attached she grew to Ming and the more she learned about how to care for him. Soon, Dewi had mastered sign language, established routines with Ming, and found ways to play with him and entice him outside. After six years working with Ming, Dewi finally decided to go home to Indonesia. She wanted to use what she had learned to help Indonesian children with special needs, but school after school told her that they couldn’t hire her because she hadn’t completed any recognised training. Her experiences in Taiwan counted for nothing, not least because records from the recruitment agency showed only that she had been employed as a domestic worker. Although Dewi had valuable skills and experience that could help improve the lives of Indonesian children with special needs, her lack of credentials meant that she could never use her hard-earned skills.

Poorly equipped
Dewi’s story is unique. But it also resonates with the stories of many of the thousands of Indonesian migrant women workers who travel abroad each year. Since 2004, the Indonesian government has required all migrant domestic workers to participate in ‘skills training’ before they leave to work abroad. According to Indonesian law, this training must help prepare women for their intended work abroad and include, among other things, information about customs, traditions and religious beliefs in the destination country, as well discussion of the risks of working abroad. But, like Dewi, most women leave poorly prepared.

Training is typically offered by the for-profit recruitment agencies that place migrant women workers in positions abroad. Because it is not consistently regulated, the quality of this training is often woeful, focusing more on developing discipline than on language skills or knowledge of the destination country. Such gaps are unfortunate. Recognising that providing care to someone who speaks a different language and has different cultural and religious beliefs is challenging, many migrant women workers have a strong desire to develop their language and caregiving skills. As such, the provision of poor training represents a missed opportunity to provide women with an educational experience that many want but may not otherwise be able to access.

In addition, like Dewi, many migrant women workers train for jobs that are different from the jobs they are actually assigned. It is not uncommon for recruitment agencies to mislead women about the work they will be performing abroad. As a result, women may spend months training for one job only to find that they have in fact been hired to do something else. This is very frustrating for women who have invested months in training and want to do their jobs well. Also, and despite contracts promising otherwise, women are often required to undertake multiple types of work, a practice that means that women waste valuable time training for jobs they will never perform and at the same time are ill-equipped for the work they must do.

Double whammy
Having battled to establish themselves, women like Dewi develop sometimes remarkable skill-sets while working overseas. But these skills often go unacknowledged and unappreciated upon their return. Of course, some women receive training or education while abroad that allows them to begin a new career or business upon returning to Indonesia. But because the skills most women develop overseas are not acknowledged as valuable, many women find themselves post-migration in the exact same position they were before they left.

Part of the problem is the fact that, because recruitment agencies are known to engage in shady practices, the credentials they offer are not taken seriously. But there is also another important factor. The skills migrant workers inevitably learn abroad are not neutral. Instead they carry with them the stigma of where and how they were learned. It is important to consider the implications of failing to provide high-quality, relevant training for migrant women workers and to recognise the skills they acquire on the job. It suggests these women are not considered worthy of educational investment and nor are their skills are considered worth developing.

Many women see migration as an opportunity to develop new skills that they hope will be useful not only while abroad but also when they return. The failure to foster and acknowledge skills development among migrant women workers when so many travel overseas for work is a serious failing on the part of the Indonesian state.

Time for change
Why do the skills and knowledge women develop while working in the domestic sphere remain unacknowledged? Why not support the ability of women who already have valuable language, caregiving and cross-cultural communication skills to put these skills to use? And why not help them further develop these skills through high-quality training opportunities? One potential solution is to improve the quality of the skills training that women receive from recruitment agencies through, among other measures, more effective government regulation of those recruitment agencies. But it’s debatable whether recruitment agencies are the best providers of this education in the first place.

Instead of turning over control for training to recruitment agencies, the government might instead consider providing this training itself. Alternatively, it might consider partnering with universities or technical training centres that could offer women a certificate or license that women could use both for migration purposes and as proof of language and specialised skills upon their return. A system in which women earned credits for their training could be developed so as to allow women interested in pursuing further education a basis on which to build. A revamp of the training system should also take into account the skills that women develop while abroad. Instead of requiring women to participate in repeat training when they begin a new contract to the same country, a skills test or short refresher course could be offered instead. There could also be a system for testing and certifying return migrants’ competencies.

Enhancing skills training and increasing recognition of women’s skills in this way would not only help women achieve their goals for finding meaningful work upon their return to Indonesia. It would also help Indonesia achieve its goal of developing human resources through education and training. The question is, therefore, not why or how to reward and recognise returned migrant women workers’ skills – but rather why it hasn’t already been done.

Ellen Prusinski ( is a PhD candidate in Education Policy at Indiana University.

Inside Indonesia 116: Apr-Jun 2014

A scene of Indonesian movie on the life of Indonesian female migrant workers in Hong Kong, "Minggu Pagi di Victoria Park" (Sunday Morning in Victoria Park) directed by Lola Amaria.

A scene of Indonesian movie on the life of Indonesian female migrant workers in Hong Kong, “Minggu Pagi di Victoria Park” (Sunday Morning in Victoria Park) directed by Lola Amaria.

‘Anai-anai’ (Termite) of the Brunei Sultanate (3)

Pehin Orang Kaya Lela Raja Dato Seri Laila Jasa Haji Abdul Rahman bin Haji Abdul Karim

bru syariPOVERTY may induce a Muslim to apostasy” (Hadith). We must create thousands of woman-business-economic power similar to that of Khadijah Binti Khuwailid Radi’al Allahu Anha for Brunei Darussalam, to be honoured, to be respected.

Recently a writer (“Concern Citizen”) wrote in a local newspaper. He/she suggested the following steps to help clear this fear, as follows:

i. Create a hotline for any inquiry about the Laws (Syariah Law) or (Islamic) religious issues;

ii. Create a Facebook page for inquiries particularly from abroad, on the Law;

iii. Air a television programme on the Law on regular basis;

iv. Set up a booth for inquiries on the Law at the Brunei International Airport for visitors and tourists. (“Tips to help understand Syariah Law” Borneo Bulletin 5-3-2014)

Clearly, the progressive nature of Islam is virtually impossible to separate from Islamic virtues of equity and justice, and respect for women.

But thousands of years of deeply ingrained cultural values promote and sustain deep “cultural misogynic practices” that have clearly been banished in (most parts of the) Muslim world where women occupy a variety of high positions in politics, business, management, in factories, banking, from science, engineering to pilots, doctors, professors, and so on.

“The Quran’s teachings about women are enormously progressive. Women’s legal and financial rights saw dramatic advances over pre-Islamic social norms and practice.” (Prof John Renard)

The very word “Syariah” conjures images of social control through severe criminal punishment and the regulation of sexual morality, especially that of women.

But what is less often noticed is the basic fact that the idea of a commitment to a vision of legal order.

The legal order that demands justice as driven by the language of the Quran.

In the mind of westerners and even some secularised Muslims, Syariah often stands for the covering of women and the administering of corporal punishment for thieves and adulterers.

But the true meaning of Syariah is Law itself and not any law, but the Divine Law that governed the Islamic state through the centuries of its success.

What is not generally known to western audiences is that these punishments may not be administered except after conviction by a court under a standard of proof so high that it can only very rarely be met ….. Extreme and visible punishments serve as salient reminders to the public to follow the law (deterrent/preventive!) ….. much like the English common law that “punished every felony with death”. (Re: “The Fall and Rise of the Islamic State” by Noah Feldman.)

The demand for a high standard of proof in Syariah is due to the serious, heavy onus on the judges to be extremely cautious and fair in obtaining and weighing the proof of guilt as they are both “answerable” to Allah Subhanu Wa Ta’ala and to the accused.

(NB: There are numerous cases in the West where the innocent had been hung! But in the secular West, those judges, jurists and prosecutors are “not answerable to God!”)

Thus, according to Marshall Hogson in his book “Venture of Islam, Vol I: “From a pre-modern view, the Shariah was actually ‘mild’.

In an age where torture was the standard procedure from dealing with suspects, Islamic Law even seemed ‘soft’ on criminals.”

Our religious authorities should use the essence of “Language of Mercy In Islamic Discourse” as published in The Brunei Times (28-2- 2014) as an excellent foundation to enlighten those who hide behind their respective pseudonyms to launch attacks on Islam and our Monarch.

The country’s religious officers must obviously possess deep and wide knowledge of Syariah: must not simply, perfunctorily read from prepared papers.

This is because Bruneians nowadays are having agile minds and are being day and night exposed to their fingertips, cyber information and disinformation about Islam and Islamic authorities.

Enemies of Islam and Muslims are lurking out there, even within the minds and hearts of those who hide behind their respective pseudonyms in launching their attacks.

Correct knowledge decreases fear. People fear what they do not know or understand. “Tak kenal, maka tak cinta”. In this case, ignorance is not bliss — it is a curse.

To conclude, this very common children riddle may be an apt reminder:

X and Y were arguing.

X to Y: “Which comes first, the egg or hen?”

Y: “Of course, the hen!”

X: “No! Without the egg, the hen would not have been born”.

So both kept on arguing, staunchly defending their points.

By and by, a pious one in authority, overheard this debate. He clearly reminded the boys that Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala created both the hen and the egg.

“Call to the way of thy Lord with wisdom and goodly exhortation, and argue with them in the best manner. Surely thy Lord knows best him who strays from His path, and He knows best those who go aright.”

(Al-Quran: Surah Al-Nahl [The Bee] 16: Verse 125)

From Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala we come, to Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala we will return. Allahu Akbar.



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